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What is Coeliac Disease & Millionaire Flapjacks

Updated: Oct 18, 2020

Coeliac Awareness Week Post 2:

So I did my thesis on Coeliac Disease while studying Culinary Arts in DIT Cathal Brugha street, as with anything I do, I have a tendency to get carried away!

*CD will be used to refer to Coeliac Disease from this point forward.

My dad was chief proof reader of my thesis because he didn't entirely understand CD, he just knew some foods made me sick for days. By the time I had submitted my thesis, he was an expert on it and was telling all his friends and anyone he met about CD and how it is 'actually quite serious'.

So below are some adapted passages from my thesis, I'm including the references at the end. If you are interested to see where these facts were pulled from, scroll to the end

CD is an autoimmune disease and every time a coeliac ingests the protein gluten, the small intestine is damaged and therefore impairs the ability to absorb essential nutrients.(Akobeng et al (2008) This lack of essential nutrients leads to malnutrition which is very dangerous if it is not remedied.

As there is no cure for CD, it is a disease for life and the only treatment is to remove gluten from the diet (Gazzola (2015). Once gluten is eliminated from the diet, the small intestine can heal and begin absorbing nutrients again.

(The Gastroenterology Interest Group of the Irish Nutrition and Dietetic Institute (INDI)

Yield: 25 squares

Tin Size: 25cm Square

Temperature: 170°C Fan

Cooking Time: 15 minutes

Preparation Time: 1 hour 15 minutes


Flapjack Layer:

190g Golden Syrup

150g Demerara

200g Butter

300g Gluten Free Oats


150g Butter

150g Soft Dark Brown Sugar

1 tin (397g) Condensed Milk

Chocolate topping:

200g Dark Chocolate

50g White Chocolate


  1. Preheat fan oven to 170°C Fan.

  2. For Flapjack layer, melt the golden syrup, demerara & butter. Once all the butter has melted and is hot, add to the oats.

  3. Combine the oats and ensure that they are well coated. Line the square tin with baking parchment. (Check Gluten Free Brownie post for tips on lining tins).

  4. Flatten flapjack mixture evenly using the back of a spoon. Bake at 170°C for 15 minutes or until golden brown.

  5. For Caramel layer, melt the sugar and butter together, whisk together if it doesn't seem to be emulsifying. Once the sugar and butter mix is hot, add the condensed milk.

  6. Stir caramel mix constantly, bring mixture to the boil for a few minutes and begins to thicken. Put a few drops of caramel mix on a plate and let it to cool, to check the set of the caramel.

  7. Pour the caramel over the flapjack, tap the tray lightly to make sure the caramel spreads into all the edges. Leave to cool in the fridge for 40 minutes

  8. When the caramel layer is set, melt the two chocolates and let cool to 32°C.

  9. Pour the dark chocolate over the caramel and use an offset spatula to spread it out evenly.

  10. Use a piping bag to pipe even lines of white chocolate over the dark chocolate. Take a tooth pick and drag it through the opposite direction of the lines, alternating up and down.

  11. Put back into the fridge to set and cut with a hot knife and cut into 25 squares.


1. Akobeng, A., Kirk, E., McGough, N., Merrikin, E., Robins, G., 2008. A systematic literature review on the nutritional adequacy of a typical gluten-free diet with particular reference to iron, calcium, folate and B vitamins. [pdf] Available at: <> [Accessed 6 February 2017]

2. Gazzola, A. (2015) Coeliac Disease: what you need to know. (2nd ED) London: Sheldon Press

3. Gastroenterology Interest Group of the Irish Nutrition and Dietetic Institute, 2015. Coeliac Disease and a Gluten-Free Diet. [online] Available at: <,-allergies-and-medical-conditions/digestive-health/393-coeliac-disease-and-a-gluten-free-diet.html> [Accessed 22 October 2016]

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